SPA 004064 Lough Ree SPA
SITE NAME: Lough Ree SPA
SITE CODE: 004064
Situated on the River Shannon between Lanesborough and Athlone, Lough Ree is the third largest lake in the Republic of Ireland. It lies in an ice-deepened depression in Carboniferous Limestone. Some of its features (including the islands) are based on glacial drift. The main inflowing rivers are the Shannon, Inny and Hind, and the main outflowing river is the Shannon. The greater part of Lough Ree is less than 10 m in depth, but there are six deep troughs running from north to south, reaching a maximum depth of about 36 m just west of Inchmore. The lake has a very long, indented shoreline and hence has many sheltered bays. It also has a good scattering of islands, most of which are included in the site.
The lake is classified as a mesotrophic system, but the size of the system means that a range of conditions prevail depending on, for example, rock type. This gives rise to local variations in nutrient status and pH, which in turn result in variations in the phytoplankton and macrophyte flora. In the most recent assessment of water quality a reduced planktonic growth was noted, which may be due to the spread of the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), which feeds on phytoplankton.
The waters of Lough Ree tend to be strongly peat-stained, restricting macrophytes to depths of less than 2 m. The aquatic flora includes such species as Intermediate Bladderwort (Utricularia intermedia), pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.), Quillwort (Isoetes lacustris), stoneworts (Chara spp., including C. pedunculata) and Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia). Beds of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) are an extensive habitat in a number of the more sheltered places around the lake; monodominant stands of Common Club-rush (Scirpus lacustris), Slender Sedge (Carex lasiocarpa) and Saw Sedge (Cladium mariscus) also occur as swamps in suitable places. Some of these grade into species-rich calcareous fen or freshwater marsh. Lowland wet grassland, some of which floods in winter, occurs frequently around the shore. Dry, broad-leaved, semi-natural woodland occurs in several places around the lake, and on some of the islands within the site, notably on Hare Island. Pockets of wet woodland also occur around the lake, most of which are dominated by willows (Salix spp.), Alder (Alnus glutinosa) and Downy Birch (Betula pubescens).
Lough Ree is one of the most important Midland sites for wintering waterfowl, with nationally important populations of Wigeon (1,475), Teal (912), Pintail (35), Tufted Duck (661), Goldeneye (137), Golden Plover (2,035) and Lapwing (3,870) occurring (all figures are average peaks for the 5 seasons 1995/96-1999/00). Regionally important numbers of Whooper Swan (89) and Greenland White-fronted Goose (92) are found feeding in the vicinity of the lake, as are Golden Plover, Lapwing and, to some extent, Wigeon and Teal. Other species which occur in winter include Cormorant (64), Mallard (675), Coot (250), Shoveler (40), Curlew (167) and Great Crested Grebe (23), as well as the resident Little Grebe (34) and Mute Swan (93).
The site supports a nationally important population of Common Tern (90 pairs in 1990). It is a traditional breeding site for Black-headed Gull and whilst a full survey has not been carried out in recent years, substantial numbers of nesting birds were present on at least one island in 2003. Lesser Black-backed Gull and Common Gull have bred in the past and may still breed. Lough Ree is an important site for breeding duck and grebes, with Tufted Duck (265 individuals in late May 1995) and Great Crested Grebe (89 individuals in late May 1995) having populations of national importance. Of particular note is that Lough Ree is one of the two main sites in the country for breeding Common Scoter, a Red Data Book species. The most recent full census of the site for the species (in 1999) gave a population of c. 32 pairs. The woodland around the lake is a stronghold for Garden Warbler and this scarce species probably occurs on some of the islands within the site.
Otter, a species listed on Annex II of the E.U. Habitats Directive occurs frequently within the site. The endangered, Red Data Book fish species, Pollan (Coregonus autumnalis pollan) is recorded from Lough Ree, one of only four sites (L. Neagh, L. Erne, L. Ree and L. Derg) in which it occurs. The shrimp, Mysis relicta, occurs in the lake and is a relic of the glacial period in Ireland.
Whilst recently classified as a mesotrophic system, Lough Ree had been moderately eutrophic in the mid-1990s. It is vulnerable to artificial enrichment of the waters by agricultural and domestic waste. The recent reduction in phytoplanktonic growth has coincided with the invasion of the Shannon system by the Zebra Mussel; however, in the long-term this invasive bivalve may threaten the ecology of the lake. Recreational activities, especially boating, presently cause some disturbance to the birds and an increase in such activities would be of concern. Developments above the lakeshore could affect feeding grounds of some of the wintering waterfowl and nesting habitat for duck species.
Lough Ree is of high ornithological importance for both wintering and breeding birds. It supports nationally important populations of seven wintering waterfowl species, as well as other important species including Whooper Swan and Greenland White-fronted Goose (both of which are listed on Annex I of E.U. Birds Directive). The site has a range of breeding waterfowl, notably nationally important populations of Common Scoter, Great Crested Grebe and Tufted Duck. It also has a colony of Common Tern, another species listed on Annex I of the E.U. Birds Directive.